Conservation of energy (Roller coaster)

In science class we were assigned a project to build a roller coaster out of paper. The roller coaster had to have three turns,one loop and two hills. Building the roller coaster wasn’t very hard. The reason we built it was to see if the potential energy and the velocity change when we roll a marble down it.  While making the roller coaster the main problem we had was with the loop because it wouldn’t roll all the way around. It took a little bit for us to adjust it to work but we figured it out.

When our roller coaster was finished we took measurements from all of the roller coasters. the velocity of the marble on my teams roller coaster decreased the less so my teams roller coaster won.

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Gravity and acceleration

In science class we did an experiment with a tennis ball to see if the speed stays the same and if the velocity changes. To figure this out we dropped a ball by a measure on the wall with a strobe light so we could see how far the ball was dropping and if it was going faster with a camera. The speed increased  greatly, 9.81 meters per second velocity increased also. by using the strobe light it allowed light to enter the camera at different times showing  how far the distance of the ball increases.

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What is Matter

What is matter? if you had a crash or land hard  you dealt with matter. It is anything that takes up space. There are two properties of matter physical and chemical properties. Physical properties are furniture,trees people,water and air anything with a color and shape.Chemical properties are fire rust for example if you have a iron pipe and it rust that is a chemical property. Measuring Matter,it can be measured with a scale, weight tape measure. length of matter is how long, it is usually  measured with a ruler or measuring tape. Weight can change but mass can stay the same,Density is mass divided by volume.

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Mountain Formation

Plate tectonics and mountains Both the circum-pacific mountain belt and the Eurasian-Melanesian mountain belt are located along convergent plate boundaries. Scientists think that the location of these two mountain belts is evidence that most mountains were formed when lithospheric plates collided. Collisions Between Continental and Oceanic Crust;some mountains form when oceanic crust and continental creust colide at convergent plate boundaries. When the moving plates collide,the oceanic crust is subducted beneath the continental crust. Colllisions Between Oceanic Crust and Oceanic Crust;Volcanic mountains sometimes form where two plates with oceanic crust at their edges collide. One oceanic plate subducts beneath the other oceanic plate. As the oceanic plate subducts,water from the subducting lithosphere induces partial melting of mantle material to from magma. The magma rises and breaks through the oceanic crust.these eruptions form an arc of volcanic mountains on the ocean floor. Collisions Between Continents;Mountains can also form when two continents collide. The himalaya mountains were formed by just such a colision,according to the theory of plate tectonics,India was at one time a separate continent riding on the Indian plate,which was moving north roward Eurasia

Mountain range is a groupof adjacent mountains with the same general shape and structure. Example is mount everest has the highest elevation of any mountain on earth rising 8 km above sea level. Mountain system is a group of individual mountains that make up a range,a group of adjacent mountain ranges make up a mountain system. Mountain belt is two major mountain belts on earth,the circum-pacific belt and the Erasian_melanesian belt runs from the Pacific islands through asia and southern Europe and into northwestern Africa.

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Folding and Faulting: The results of stress

Folding usually occurs rocks respond to stress by becoming permanently deformed without breaking,this is folding. Folding is most easily observed where flat layers of rock are under compression and are squeezed inward from the sides making the rock deformed but not broken.Cracks may appear,but the rock will still be intact. There are three different types of folds anticline which is an up curved fold in which the oldest layer is in the center of the fold.  Syncline is the exact  opposite of anticline its a down-curved fold in which the youngest layer is in the center. Monocline is a fold in which a fold in which both limbs remain horizontal,generally large folds occur.

Faulting is when rock does not always respond to stress by folding. cooler temperatures and lower pressure near the earth’s often cause rock to respond to stress by breaking which is a fault. There are 4 main types of faults fracture is when there is no movement on either side of the fault which is a fracture. Hanging wall is the rock above the fault plane and is above the footwall. Footwall is the rock below hanging wall. Normal fault is a fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall,normal faults occur along divergent boundaries. Reverse fault forms when compression causes the hanging wall to move up relative to a footwall.

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How the Crust is Deformed

 

Predict isostatic adjustments that will result from changes in the thickness predict the earth’s crust and the way it forms. Isostasy is the balancing of two forces. As these isostatic adjustments occur,areas of the are bent up and down and pressure created by this bending causes the rocks in that area of the crust are bent up and down which is why we say that thickness of the earth’s crust predict isostasy. Compression,is when crustal rocks are squeezed together compression often reduces the column of the rocks.Tension,the force that pulls rocks apart from each other,when they pull apart from tension they become thinner.Shearing,rocks pushing in opposite horizontal directions,sheared rock bend,twist,or break apart when they slide past one another.

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The Theory of Plate Tectonics

In the 1960’s evidence supporting the hypotheses of continental drift or seafloor spreading led to the formulation of a theory of plate tectonics moving or pushing up against each other. This causes mountains, terrain change and ocean water to heat up. The earth’s crust consist of two types-oceanic crust and continental crust.

The characteristics of geologic activities are divergent boundaries are when two plates move apart form each other. As the plate moves apart, the asthenosphere flows upward to fill the open space.The decreased pressure causes the asthenosphere to partiallly melt. As it melts it separates form the solid rock and rises to the surface to form new oceanic lithosphere.Most divergent boundaries are found on the ocean floor.

Convergent boundaries The direct collision of one plate with another makes another type of plate boundary a convergent boundary.Three types of of collisions can occur,the oceanic crust at its leading edge. Collides with a plate with continental crust.Oceanic crust denser and it is subducted witch means being forced under less dense continental crust. When one plate moves under another plate it is referred to as subduction zone. A second type of collision occurs when two plates with continental crust at their leading edges come together.The colliding edges are are crumpled and uplifted, causing mountains.

Transform boundaries-A plate boundary called a transform boundary forms where two plates are grinding past each other. They move in sudden spurts and then little or no motion.

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