Folding and Faulting: The results of stress

Folding usually occurs rocks respond to stress by becoming permanently deformed without breaking,this is folding. Folding is most easily observed where flat layers of rock are under compression and are squeezed inward from the sides making the rock deformed but not broken.Cracks may appear,but the rock will still be intact. There are three different types of folds anticline which is an up curved fold in which the oldest layer is in the center of the fold.  Syncline is the exact  opposite of anticline its a down-curved fold in which the youngest layer is in the center. Monocline is a fold in which a fold in which both limbs remain horizontal,generally large folds occur.

Faulting is when rock does not always respond to stress by folding. cooler temperatures and lower pressure near the earth’s often cause rock to respond to stress by breaking which is a fault. There are 4 main types of faults fracture is when there is no movement on either side of the fault which is a fracture. Hanging wall is the rock above the fault plane and is above the footwall. Footwall is the rock below hanging wall. Normal fault is a fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall,normal faults occur along divergent boundaries. Reverse fault forms when compression causes the hanging wall to move up relative to a footwall.

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